(CONCODA, 1802) During the Revolution, a state of disharmony arose between the state and staunch Catholic Christians. Due to the efforts by the revolutionaries to establish state control over the church, many religious officials, and many Catholic Christians, due to the anti-Christian activities of the reign of terror, became disenchanted with the revolution and sympathized with the reactionary elements. The Pope also severed ties with the French government.
Napoleon seeks political support from Pope and disgruntled Catholic Christians of France
Was, but he also wanted to maintain effective state control over religion. What did Napoleon think about religion? He said, ‘I do not believe in religions, I became a Muslim in Egypt and thus could move there, I became an’ ultramontane ‘(populist) to win the support of the Italian clergy… .. here (in France ) I will become a Catholic for the good of the people. ‘Napoleon did not believe in the independent importance of religion, but he considered religious sentiment useful for socio-political purposes. In the words of Napoleon, “People must have religion, but that religion must be in the hands of the government.” I do not look at the mystery of incarnation in religion, but the mystery of social order.
Napoleon’s efforts resulted in a ‘Concordat’ between the government of France and the Pope in 1801, after long-term consultations with the then Pope Pius VII. This religion
Through the Treaty, Catholic Christianity was formally approved in France. Although
Catholic Christianity was not declared the religion of France, and the religious of the French people
The spirit of freedom and religious tolerance was maintained in the same way, however, in the Synod, it was accepted that the majority of the French people are Catholic apostates. The Pope renounced his rights over the church lands acquired during the Revolution in France, and France. The government took the responsibility of paying salaries to the priests. The new bishops were nominated by the First Consul (Napoleon). The pledge of loyalty to the government of France before the new bishops could take over. Thus Catholicism was re-established in France, but as Savage (Modern Europe to 1870) wrote, ‘The Catholic Church Now with the kingdom, Louis of the sixteenth era. Compared more strongly, in comparison. ‘
The above ‘Dharmasandhi’ was an important success of Napoleon. On the one hand it has been
Give formal approval of the Pope and Catholic Christians to important changes made in the field of religion. On the other hand, the French government gained the support of the disgruntled Catholic Christians of the Revolution. The above ‘religious observance’ proved so useful for both sides, that for the next 103 years (until 1905) it was the reciprocal of the French government and the Church. The regulatory treaty of relations remained.
05 Napoleon’s Law Code
Before the Revolution, under the Archaic system, there were so many different laws prevailing in different regions of France that France was like a legal wilderness, although in the first written constitution (1791) of France after the Revolution, there was talk of bringing uniformity in the laws. It was said, and the government of the ‘National Conference’ also initiated efforts in this direction, but the task remained incomplete during the revolution of France’s revolutionary decade (1789 to 1799). The need of the hour was to have uniformity in the laws of France, that every citizen should have clear knowledge of their legal rights, and that the important changes during the revolutionary period should have a solid legal basis. Napoleon accepted the challenge. In August, 1800, a committee of four eminent jurists called for the preparation of a code of laws of France. Napoleon took a personal interest in the activities of this committee, and from his ideological consciousness and legislative point of view contributed significantly in the formulation of a new law-code.
In March 1804, the new law code of France was implemented. This code was called ‘Napoleon’s
The Code of Napoleon has been given the name of the Civil Code.
1804). Napoleon’s law code became famous in the country and abroad for its simplicity, precision and precision. An important feature of this law-code was that it made the fundamental legacy of the revolution related to the rights of man legally safe.
Some other specific codes later in France’s ‘Civil Code’ or ‘Napoleon’s Code of Law’
Were formed and added, which were as follows: ‘Code of Civil Procedure’
Procedure, 1806); ‘Code of Commerce’ (Code of Commerce, 1807); ‘Code of Criminal Procedurc, I808’ and ‘Penal Code, 1810’.
Napoleon’s Code of Laws strengthened the achievements of the revolution such as the right to civil equality, law free from religious influence and religious tolerance, inheritance for all heirs.
Equality, land ownership of farmers, feudalism and abolition of privileges, abolition of slavery, etc.
The uniformity and clarity of the laws was a unique gift of Napoleon to the French people. Napoleon’s Law Code made all residences in France